Electronic components are smaller, faster, and more reliable than ever before. Many of the advances made in the electronics industry are directly related to the materials used. The excellent conductive properties of high-quality electronic nickel coupled with its resistance to corrosion make it an excellent choice for multiple electronic applications. Glass-sealing alloys such as Kovar® and alloy 52 are used to make hermetic environments, and alloy 42 is very well suited for joining to ceramic chips in miniature electronic circuits.
It is used in laminated cores for instrument transformers, magnetic shields and cores for certain electronic and communication devices. High Perm 49’s extremely high permeability at low magnetizing forces significantly increases operational effectiveness and efficiency. Because of its high permeability, it is used in solenoid cores and in light-sensitive relays that must operate and respond to weak currents that induce low magnetizing forces.
Molybdenum TZM is an established Molybdenum alloy (0.50 Ti, 0.08 Zr, balance Mo), which is consolidated by either the P/M or vacuum arc-casting processes. It gives excellent service in applications that require high strength and creep resistance at elevated temperatures. TZM Molybdenum Alloy also permits higher service temperatures without softening or weakening.
Ti-6Al-4V (UNS designation R56400), also sometimes called TC4, is an alpha-beta titanium alloy with a high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. It is one of the most commonly used titanium alloys and is applied in a wide range of applications where low density and excellent corrosion resistance are necessary such as e.g. aerospace industry and biomechanical applications (implants and prostheses).
Like Niobium, Tantalum is a heat-tolerant refractory metal with excellent corrosion resistance. Often alloyed with other metals, tantalum is used to make super alloys used in chemical processing, jet engines and nuclear reactors. Its oxidation properties also make it an excellent choice for many electronic applications, including electrolytic capacitors and high-power resistors. Tantalum is also highly bio-compatible and used extensively for medical applications, such as skull plates, hip joints, suture clips and stents.
Niobium (also known as columbium) is a shiny, ductile metal primarily used in alloys. It improves the properties of steel and is often used in gas pipelines, jet engines and structural applications. Because of its corrosion resistance and ability to perform at high temperatures, niobium metal plates, rods and sheets are used in sputtering targets and chemical processing equipment. At extremely low temperatures, it becomes superconductive. Superconductive niobium wire is used to make extremely powerful electromagnets used in magnetic resonance imagery and particle accelerators.
Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals and, at temperatures greater than 1650°C, the highest tensile strength. Its thermal expansion rate is similar to that of borosilicate glass and silicon. Tungsten’s good thermal and electrical conductivity make it an excellent choice for microprocessor applications. It is also used in electron emitters, heater coils, cathode ray tubes, electrical contacts and a variety of high-heat applications.
Molybdenum is a plentiful, cost-effective metal known for its strength and stability in high-heat applications. Softer and more ductile than tungsten, it is often alloyed with other compounds to improve corrosion resistance and strength at high temperatures.
Unalloyed Commercially Pure (CP) Titanium is available in four different grades, 1, 2, 3 and 4, which are used based on the corrosion resistance, ductility and strength requirements of the specific application. Titanium Grade 2 is stronger than Grade 1 and equally corrosion-resistant against most applications.
Constantan is a copper-nickel alloy used in a variety of thermocouple applications. It is paired with iron, copper and Chromel® to form types J, T and E thermocouples, respectively. Known for its high electrical resistivity and its ability to perform consistently despite changes in temperature, Constantan is also widely used throughout the electronics industry.
Used with Alumel® in type K thermocouples and with Constantan in type E thermocouples, Chromel® is made of nickel and chromium.
Used in conjunction with Chromel® in type K thermocouples, Alumel®1 is made of nickel, manganese, aluminum and silicon.
200 Series are chromium-manganese-nickel alloys, which maximize the use of manganese and nitrogen to minimize the use of nickel. 200 Series Nickel has good mechanical properties and excellent corrosion resistance to alkalis. It also has good electrical, thermal and magneto-strictive properties.
With an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, approximately one-tenth that of carbon steel at temperatures up to 400° F, Invar® is often thought of as the material of choice for low expansion nickel alloy applications. The ability to maintain strength at very low temperatures also makes it the optimum choice for containing some liquid gasses.
Alloy 52 is a nickel-iron alloy with a thermal expansion rate similar to soft glasses and ceramics. Typical applications include voltage regulators, conductors, and glass-to-metal hermetic seals.
Composed of iron, nickel and cobalt, Kovar®1 has thermal expansion characteristics similar to hard glass, making it an excellent choice for glass-to-metal hermetic seals. Kovar® is widely used in the electronics industry.