Molybdenum TZM is an established Molybdenum alloy (0.50 Ti, 0.08 Zr, balance Mo), which is consolidated by either the P/M or vacuum arc-casting processes. It gives excellent service in applications that require high strength and creep resistance at elevated temperatures. TZM Molybdenum Alloy also permits higher service temperatures without softening or weakening.
Niobium (also known as columbium) is a shiny, ductile metal primarily used in alloys. It improves the properties of steel and is often used in gas pipelines, jet engines and structural applications. Because of its corrosion resistance and ability to perform at high temperatures, niobium metal plates, rods and sheets are used in sputtering targets and chemical processing equipment. At extremely low temperatures, it becomes superconductive. Superconductive niobium wire is used to make extremely powerful electromagnets used in magnetic resonance imagery and particle accelerators.
Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals and, at temperatures greater than 1650°C, the highest tensile strength. Its thermal expansion rate is similar to that of borosilicate glass and silicon. Tungsten’s good thermal and electrical conductivity make it an excellent choice for microprocessor applications. It is also used in electron emitters, heater coils, cathode ray tubes, electrical contacts and a variety of high-heat applications.
Constantan is a copper-nickel alloy used in a variety of thermocouple applications. It is paired with iron, copper and Chromel® to form types J, T and E thermocouples, respectively. Known for its high electrical resistivity and its ability to perform consistently despite changes in temperature, Constantan is also widely used throughout the electronics industry.
Used with Alumel® in type K thermocouples and with Constantan in type E thermocouples, Chromel® is made of nickel and chromium.