Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Zirconium alloys can be found in pipes, fittings and heat exchangers, catalytic converters, furnace bricks, lab crucibles, surgical instruments, television glass, removing residual gases from vacuum tubes
Like Niobium, Tantalum is a heat-tolerant refractory metal with excellent corrosion resistance. Often alloyed with other metals, tantalum is used to make super alloys used in chemical processing, jet engines and nuclear reactors. Its oxidation properties also make it an excellent choice for many electronic applications, including electrolytic capacitors and high-power resistors. Tantalum is also highly bio-compatible and used extensively for medical applications, such as skull plates, hip joints, suture clips and stents.
Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals and, at temperatures greater than 1650°C, the highest tensile strength. Its thermal expansion rate is similar to that of borosilicate glass and silicon. Tungsten’s good thermal and electrical conductivity make it an excellent choice for microprocessor applications. It is also used in electron emitters, heater coils, cathode ray tubes, electrical contacts and a variety of high-heat applications.
Constantan is a copper-nickel alloy used in a variety of thermocouple applications. It is paired with iron, copper and Chromel® to form types J, T and E thermocouples, respectively. Known for its high electrical resistivity and its ability to perform consistently despite changes in temperature, Constantan is also widely used throughout the electronics industry.
200 Series are chromium-manganese-nickel alloys, which maximize the use of manganese and nitrogen to minimize the use of nickel. 200 Series Nickel has good mechanical properties and excellent corrosion resistance to alkalis. It also has good electrical, thermal and magneto-strictive properties.